Last Update January 27, 2014
|1826||Joseph Niepce takes the world's first photograph of some farm buildings and the sky. It has an exposure time of 8 hours. Niépce calls the first ever photograph a 'heloigraph' or sun-drawing. He uses a pewter plate and Bitumen of Judea to create a positive image, without the negative stage used today.The bitumen hardened in the sun, and Niepce removed the softer "unexposed" bitumen with a mixture of oil of lavender and white petroleum. Today this 'heliograph' is kept sealed in an air tight case within an inert atmosphere at the University of Texas.|
|1838||Charles Wheatstone is the first to describe Stereopsis and explain binocular 3D vision. He created stereo drawings and the first Stereoscope to view them with.|
|1861||Maxwell demonstrates to the Royal Society of London. He shows that any color can be produced by mixing light from a red, a green and a blue lantern. In the demonstration he projected the first color photograph, a tartan by Thomas Sutton. The theory is the basis of color displays even today.||
Eadweard Muybridge uses trip wires to photograph a horse in motion and settle a bet. These are regarded as the first photographic motion pictures.
|1879||Muybridge invents the Zoopraxiscope to display his image series|
|Frenchman Maurice LeBlanc describes a mechanical scanning system using mirrors for telegraphic transfer of an image.|
|1882||Parisian Etienne-Jules Marey constructs a camera (or "photographic gun") that could take 12 photographs per second of moving animals or humans and calls it Chronophotography or serial photography. The gun like appearance might be the source for the expression "to shoot a film"|
|1884||German engineer Paul Nipkow discloses details of his spinning disc that contained small
holes around the perimeter, which could scan a still picture on to a light sensitive
cell as a series of lines. Nipkow was the first person to realise that moving pictures might one day be scanned line by line, fast enough to take advantage of the persistence
George Eastman makes up a name. Kodak. The name has no meaning in any language and became the most recognizable brand name in the world.
The first Kodak camera goes on sale with the slogan: "You press the button, we do the rest." It cost $25 and took 100 pictures.
Edison's Kinetoscope, the first modern cinematic machine to employ film arranged images in a loop.
The earliest Edison motion pictures were filmed at
the "Black Maria", which was a film studio built in 1893.
|1894||British William Friese-Greene files a patent for a 3-D movie process using two films projected side by side on screen while the viewer looks through a stereoscope to converge the two images.|
|1895||Auguste and Louis Lumiere are credited with the first public film screening on December 28th. The ten films last about 20 minutes and were shown by Cinematograph.||
I guess this must be the birth of Cinematography!
|1895||Edison produces the first hand tinted film "Annabelle Serpentine Dance". The veils of Annabelle Moore change color as she dances.|
|1895||The Pocket Kodak is launched, costing $5 and is indeed small enough to fit in a pocket|
|1900||Kodak launch the box Brownie camera, costing just $1 and using 2 1/4 inch square negatives. Photography becomes accessible to everyone.|
|1903||The Great Train Robbery is the first story told on film. It lasts 11 minutes and must have been a surprise for Louis Lumiere who is supposed to have said "The cinema is an invention without a future". Some prints had a few hand colored scenes.|
|1904||The Lumiere brothers patent the first commercially successful color photography process. Their Autochrome plates are coated with a filter layer consisting of red, green and blue starch grains. The process is called "Lumiere Cinecolor", and is used in motion pictures in the 1920's|
|1915||Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation founded to improve colorized pictures. Technicolor Process Number One processes is an additive method for combining two strips of panchromatic film in a special camera using a prism to create red and green “records"|
|1917||The Gulf Between is the first Technicolor two-color production, which pasted two negatives together|
|1921||Kodak introduce pre tinted stocks in lavendar, red, green, blue, pink, light amber, dark amber, yellow and orange|
|1921||Technicolor Process Number Two uses a two strip subtractive technique to capture color|
|1922||The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) founded.|
|1922||The Power of Love shown in Los Angeles and is the first 3-D movie shown to a commercial audience.|
|1926||Technicolor Process Number Three uses a two strip dye transfer technique to capture color|
|1927||The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is founded. The first Academy Awards are announced in February 1929|
|1927||Harry Nyquist, a Swedish immigrant working at AT&T shows that analog signals must be sampled at twice the resolution of the highest frequency to create an adequate representation in digital form. His theory is equally true of images.|
|1927||The Jazz Singer is the first film with synchronized sound|
|1927||Baird Television Ltd is founded. The company eventually becomes Cintel. Baird patents the worlds first ever Video Recording, on a 78rpm, 10 inch shellac gramophone record.|
|1928||John Logie Baird and the German Post Office, commence a series of regular television broadcasts using a flying spot system that he had invented. The black and white images had a resolution of 30 lines and were transmitted at 5 frames per second.|
|1932||George Eastman, founder of Kodak, took his own life on March 14, 1932. He was in poor health and suffered from a heart condition, diabetes, arthritis and adegenerative spinal disease. He left a short suicide note "To my friends, My work is done, why wait? GE"|
|1932||Technicolor Process Number Four is a three strip color system. First three strip Technicolor production is a cartoon by Walt Disney, "Flowers and Trees" which won Disney his first Oscar (Best Short Film Cartoon)|
|1933||John Logie Baird first descriobes his flying spot system in the BBC Annual Report|
First full length feature film photographed entirely on three-strip Technicolor is "Becky Sharp" by ASC member Ray Rennahan
John Logie Baird publicly demonstrates two color, 120 line television system
(British) Television Advisory Committee drop the Baird mechanical system in favour of the electronic Marconi-EMI system which broadcast 405 lines at 25 frames a second.
|1938||John Logie Baird introduces the world’s first telecine to scan film for television broadcast. Amongst other things it used a Farnsworth Image Dissector and gears from a Mecanno set.|
|1939||Technicolor have a big year! Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind are released, both on Technicolor three-strip.|
|1940||Baird Television Ltd goes into receivership, but a new company Cinema Television Ltd is formed. The name eventually gets shortened to Cintel.|
|1946||Cinema Television produce the first 35mm Twin Lens Continuous Motion Flying Spot Telecine - the Mark 1. It runs at 25fps to avoid visual hum, and so cannot be sold in the USA. The twin lens is needed to scan each frame twice, to get 2 fields of video.|
|1950||The first flying spot telecine is installed at the BBC's Lime Grove studios|
|1956||April 14, 1956 Ampex demonstrate the first VTR, the VRX-1000. at the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters Convention. The VRX-1000 was renamed the Mark IV and sold briskly at $50,000. There is a 1958 version of the VRX-1000 on show in the reception of DR Byen, a television broadcaster in Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|1958||Cinema Television Ltd becomes Rank Cintel Ltd|
|1964||Cintel Ltd produce a 16mm Telecine - The Mk II. 16mm was commonly used for news gathering.|
|1967||BBC begins the first color TV broadcasts in the UK on BBC2.|
|1969||BBC1 and ITV switch to color transmissions in the UK on 15 November.|
|1971||Sony U-matic vtr introduced|
George Lucas opens Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) to work on the effects for the Star Wars films
Rank Cintel Ltd launches Mk III flying spot telecine. Revolutionary benefits include 525 and 625 line operation and 16mm and 35mm film on the same continuous motion transport.
Kodak build the first digital camera. Engineer Steven Sasson created a camera that stored 0.01mp images on cassette tape and took 23 seconds to expose each image.
|1978||Rank Cintel Ltd launch their Mark III telecine with Digiscan, probably the first digital image store. The two frame buffer could match almost any film frame rate to any video standard and made this telecine an instant success in NTSC markets of the USA and Japan.|
|1978||Rank Cintel Ltd introduces TOPSY, a remote control programming system the Mk III telecine.|
|1979||Bosche launches fdl 60 CCD line array telecine.||
The telecine I trained on, back at Telecine Ltd. London.
|1980||VTA develop the Wiz color corrector, which became da Vinci Classic|
|1983||Amigo, a highly sophisticated controller and pre-programmer for the Mk III is launched|
|1983||Sony Betacam vtr launched|
|1984||da Vinci Classic color corrector launched||
... and my secoond color corrector
|1985||Kodak invent OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) technology|
|1986||Imax starts showing non fiction films in 3D|
|1987||Sony D1 uncompressed digital component vtr introduced||
The begining of uncompressed digital!
|1987||Avid Technology Inc formed by William J. Warner with an idea for non linear editing.|
|1987||Rank Cintel Ltd. launches Digiscan 4:2:2 to give digital outputs from the Mk III telecine.|
|1988||Digital Vision formed.||
They revolutionizedreal-time noise reduction. Many of us believe they have always been the best.
|1989||The all-digital Rank Cintel Ltd URSA telecine makes its first appearance, at Montreux, with simultaneous launches in New York and Los Angeles. Rank Cintel Ltd tried unsuccesfully to force customers to use their purpose built ARCAS grading system to control it. ARCAS was never popular and failed to rival the big two hardware telecine controlers from da Vinci and Pandora.||
I moved to SVC Ltd. London to work on the second URSA to be delivered. This was truly a major advance in telecine technology. The Ursa was probably the first telecine that transferred negative and inter-positive films without difficulty.
|1989||Avid introduce Media Composer, their first editing system.|
|1989||da Vinci introduces Kilovectors||
This was a major feature set back then, everybody else was limited to 6 secondaries.
|1990||The Rescuers Down Under – First complete feature-length film to be recorded to film from digital files; in this case animation assembled on computers.|
|1990||Photoshop 1.0 is released|
|1991||Apple launches Quicktime|
|1991||da Vinci launches 888 digital color corrector for SD video||
Not the first digital color corrector in the world (that was Copernicus) but it was my first.
|1991||Bosche launches fdl 90 CCD line array telecine.|
|1992||EFilm used their proprietary film recording technology on Disney's Honey I Blew up the Kids|
|1992||da Vinci introduces Power Windows and Custom Curves||
Soft edged windows! How on earth did we get by without them?
|1992||Rob Lingelbach starts the Telecine Internet Group (TIG), a mailing list dedicated to active colorists and telecine engineers. The TIG is still probably the best resource available for colorists, those who wish to be colorists and those who want to be colorists|
|1993||Sony Digital Betacam vtr launched.|
Rank Cintel Ltd. introduces URSA Gold.
I worked on a proto type Ursa Gold with guru Paul Grace at Rushes, London
|1993||Rank Cintel Mk III HD high definition telecine goes into service at Universal Studios in Hollywood.|
|1993||Kodak introduce Cineon for 2k and 4k digital intermediate work. The system includes a film scanner, workstation and film recorder.
|1993||Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs – First film to be entirely scanned to digital files, manipulated, and recorded back to film. The restoration project was done entirely at 4K resolution and 10-bit color depth using the new Cineon system to digitally remove dirt and scratches and restore faded colors.|
|1993||ITU rec BT 709 first version approved for HDTV standard|
|1993||Quantel launch Domino a complete digital film in, film out editing and effects system. It is criticized for being only 8 bits but is an affordable alternative to Kodaks Cineon.|
|1994||da Vinci wholly aquire Time Logic which make the best telecine to tape controler on the market. The product is known as the TLC (Time Logic Controller) and is integrated into the new DUI interface|
|1994||BTS, formerly Bosch, introduces flh 1000 HD a revolutionary new High Definition CCD telecine that will become the Spirit.|
|1995||da Vinci launches DUI interface for 888 color systems. The upgrade replaces the on board CPU with an SGI Indy computer. The Indy later became obsolete and was replaced by the SGI O2, which was affectionately known as the Toaster.||
I was a beta tester for the DUI while at Online Video in Zurich.
|1995||Pixar release Toy Story, the worlds first computer animated feature and is the highest grossing film of the year. Pixar also goes public and is the largest IPO of the year.|
|1996||sRGB is created jointly by HP and Microsoft for use on monitors, printers and the internet. sRGB uses the ITU-R BT.709 primariesbut has a non linear gamma and therefore looks different from rec709.|
|1996||Philips in collaboration with Kodak introduce the Spirit Datacine for SD, HD and data||
Up until now Rank Cintel had monopolized commercial facilities. Spirit changed all that.
|1997||Sony HDCam vtr launched.|
|1997||Rank Cintel Ltd. introduces URSA Diamond.|
|1997||Kodak discontinue Cineon. However the file format .cin and its derivative .dpx continue to be used as the most common format for digital intermediate systems|
|1998||Pleasantville – The first time the majority of a new feature film was scanned, processed, and recorded digitally. The black-and-white meets color world portrayed in the movie was filmed entirely in color and selectively desaturated and contrast adjusted digitally.|
|1998||Avid acquires Softimage Inc. from Microsoft Corporation. Avid also delivers Symphony, a nonlinear noncompressed editing system for Windows NT, priced at $150,000 for a basic turnkey system. Symphony was essentially a noncompressed version of Media Composer and included color correction.|
|1998||da Vinci introduces the 2Kcolor corrector for SD, HD and data.It is controlled by an SGI O2 computer.|
|1998||da Vinci Academy formed when I join them in Florida.||
I had been doing da Vinci training for many years, and in 1998 they invited me to Florida to start up a dedicated colorist training facility.
|1999||ILM develop OpenEXR, a multi channel 16 bit half float file format|
|1999||da Vinci announces Power Tiers for 2K systems||
Read Layer It to learn more about Tiers, Channels and Layers
|1999||Philips, formerly BTS, formerly Bosch, introduces Specter as the first virtual telecine||
|1999||Sony launch the Vialta Telecine. Multi format (16 mm, S16 mm, 35 mm, S 35 mm), multi standard (601 SDTV, HDTV and data) field array ccd device with internal primary color correction. Formerly known as FVS 1000. Ceased production around 2004.|
|2000||da Vinci adds Defocus options to 2K systems|
|2000||Philips announces voodoo VTR|
|2000||Quantel launch the IQ platform, a hardware system for editing, compositing and grading SD, HD and digital film.|
|2000||O Brother, Where Art Thou? – The first time a digital intermediate was used on the entirety of a first-run Hollywood film which otherwise had very few visual effects. The work was done in Los Angeles by Cinesite utilizing a Spirit Datacine for scanning at 2K resolution, a Pandora MegaDef to adjust the color and a Kodak Lightning II recorder to output to film.|
|2001||The year that DVD sales overtake VHS sales|
|2001||da Vinci introduces PowerGrade (a memory library) and Gallery (a built in still store)||
This was all my idea, and I later got a similar feature into Film Master
5D launches Colossus software color correction licensed from Colorfront after it has been used to grade Lord of the Rings part 1, aka The Fellowship of the Ring
This was the first time hardware colorists realized that software was coming...
|2001||Cintel, formerly Rank Cintel, launches OSCAR a revolutionary optical dust and scratch removal system for their telecines. The product is later renamed OLIVER after complaints from the OSCAR awards people.|
|2002||Thomson, formerly Philips, formerly BTS, formerly Bosch, launches Viper electronic camera with 4:4:4 log output|
|2002||da Vinci 2K Plus color corrector introduced.It is controlled by a Linux computer and has significantly better Primaries and secondaries.||
da Vinci fix many of the flaws in the 2k. Now the best hardware color corrector that will ever be built
|2002||da Vinci adds Colorist Toolbox for all 2K systems|
|2002||Cintel launches DSX - the worlds first 4K data-cine, which includes Oliver, formerly OSCAR optical dust and scratch removal. Cintel International acquires the assets of competitor Innovation TK including the Millennium data-cine|
|2002||Cintel acquires the assets of competitor Innovation TK including the Millennium data-cine|
|2002||The fifth Star Wars film Attack of the Clones, is the first major Hollywood film shot entirely on digital (video) cameras.|
|2002||5D ceases trading, Colorfront continue|
|2003||Sony HDCam SR vtr launched.|
|2003||Apple FCP introduces 3 way color tool|
|2003||Silicon Color formed to develop Final Touch, which later is bought by Apple and becomes Color in Final Cut Studio 2|
|2003||ILM release OpenEXR to the public|
|2003||Nucoda Data Conform used on Harry Potter|
|2003||Autodesk licenses Lustre (previously 5D Colossus) by colorfront|
|2003||Thomson launches Spirit 4k datacine|
|2003||Cintel launches updated Millennium 2, a CRT based 4K data-cine|
|2003||Cintel launches GRACE, an internal Film Grain Reducer option for C-Reality and DSX machines|
|2003||da Vinci announces Resolve software color corrector|
|2003||Quantel announce QColor, an in context grading solution for the IQ platform|
|2004||The Aviator – Martin Scorcese forced to use DI to recreate the Technicolor process that was de-commissioned in 2002|
|2004||The Polar Express is released as IMAX 3D, which earns 14 times as much as the 2D version and causes renewed interest in producing 3D feature fims.|
|2004||Spider-Man 2 – The first digital intermediate on a new Hollywood film to be done entirely at 4K resolution|
|2004||50 leading technologists cooperate with the Science and Technology Councilof the Academy to begin work on an architecture and supporting tools for digital motion picture production, mastering and archiving. This is the begining of ACES|
|2004||Cintel launches dataMill fast data scanner based on Millennium 2 technology|
|2004||Cintel announces GRACE is now available as an external film grain reducer.|
|2005||Autodesk buys Lustre from Colorfront|
|2005||Digital Vision buys Nucoda, developers of Film Master. Digital Vision Optics (DVO) launched, providing software version of DVNR noise and dust tools.|
|2005||Quantel launches Pablo DI grading system|
|2005||Cintel launches diTTo - a low cost 2K data scanner, with a 3K native sensor|
|2006||4 x dual core and 8 x dual core PCs available from Boxx and others|
|2007||2 x quad core PCs available|
|2007||Quantel show Pablo with stereoscopic 3D toolset|
|2007||Apple introduces Color (formerly Silicon Color Final Touch) as part of the Final Cut Studio 2.|
|2007||Color Transform Language (CTL) published as SMPTE RDD-15. CTL plays a crucial part in developing ACES.|
|2008||da Vinci show new Impressario panels for Resolve|
|2008||Quantel show new panels for Pablo|
|2008||Digital Vision show stereoscopic 3D monitoring and Turbine, a background render booster that uses Blades, for Film Master.
They also augment Phoenix toolsets for restoration projects
|2009||International Colorist Academy launched and the first system independent colorist courses happen.|
|2009||Black Magic Design buy da Vinci Systems, which was in danger of closing down.|
|2009||Avatar becomes the fastest film to take one billion dollars at the box office. It took just 17 days.|
|2010||Black Magic Design announce DaVinci Resolve 7.0 for Mac OSX and a price of $995.Until now DaVinci Resolve systems cost from $200,000 to over $800,000.|
|2010||Digital Vision reveal the Precision control panels. The first color grading control surface to include touch panels and thumbsticks. They also introduce Clarity a new noise reducer that works as well on digital camera noise as film grain||
I had been consulting on the new panel design for over 3 years. It was fantastic to see so many ideas make it to the final design.
|2010||Autodesk release Flame Premium that bundles Flame, Smoke and Lustre all in one package.|
|2011||Black Magic Design release DaVinci Resolve 8.0 with new curve tools and a multi track timeline. They also launch Resolve Lite, a free version with few limitations.|
|2011||Image Systems buys Digital Vision, and the new Precision panels are released.|
|2011||Apple update Final Cut Studio to FCPX to the disappointmet of many professionals. Biggest shock is that Color is dropped from the package, and is no longer available.|
|2011||Encoreare the first to use the new IIF ACES workflow for the television series 2 of Justified|
|2011||THX buy cineSpace color management software. ICA becomes a training partner to THX.|
Adobe buy Iridas. The deal includes the rights to the Speedgrade family of products as well as the development team. Adobe Premiere grows in popularity as well as features.
|2011||The Dolby Professional Monitor, although expensive is accepted as the EBU reference display. Dolby Laboratories win an engineering Emmy for it in the 2012 awards|
|2011||Sony show 24 inch OLED professional monitors and announce the F65 camera|
|2012||Kodak commences voluntary Chapter 11, financed by Citigroup. The greatest pioneer of both film and digital imaging plans to sell 1100 of its patents to finance a new future. Kodak engineers were awarded 19,576 US patents between 1900 and 1999.|
|2012||4K and 8K UHDTV formats - Ultra High Definition Television - announced.May 2012 by ITU-R Working party 6C. They are constructed as multiples of 4 and 16 times the 1080p1920 format in ITU-R Rec. 709 and allow up to 120 pictures/second.|
|2012||Peter Jackson shoots The Hobbit on Red (5k) cameras in stereo at 48fps. That's about 16 times the storage of a regular 2k production.|
|2012||ACES workflows and transforms are ready for mainstream use. Nucoda Film Master and da Vinci Resolve amongst others introduce the necessary color transforms for ACES work. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences wins an engineering Emmy in the same year.|
|2012||Cintel International liquidated. BMD buy its IP and product range including scanners, telecines and noise reducers.|
|2013||Fuji Film announce on April 2nd, they have stopped production of most Motion Picture Film products. As a result b/w and color negative, positive and intermediate stocks are discontinued. Digital workflow products such as Recording film for Digital Separation [ETERNA-RDS] for long-term archiving will continue.|
Deluxe shut the last film lab in Australia in April. Park Road close their New Zealand Lab in June. There are no longer any labs in New Zealand or Australia. Kofic shut the last lab in Korea too. The nearest film lab to Australia is now Kantana in Thailand. All three labs in South Africa are closed. There are similar stories around the world this is truly the end of an era. Film R.I.P.
ACES version 0.2.2 is released and includes a revised RRT and updated ODTs as well as introducing ACESlog, ACESproxy and a way to reverse the ODT, RRT transforms
|2014||Paramount release The Wolf of Wall Street in digital format only. It is the first Hollywood Studio to leave film behind entirely. None of their future releases will be on film print.
Only eight per cent of US cinemas do not have digital projection kit.
NHK transmit 8K Super Hi Vision for the first time in an experiment. The 33 million pixels per frame broadcast is received succesfully 27 km away.
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© Kevin Shaw 2005-13